The World Anti-Doping Code THE 2008 PROHIBITED LIST INTERNATIONAL STANDARD The official text of the Prohibited List shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
The World Anti-Doping Code
THE 2008 PROHIBITED LIST
The official text of the Prohibited List shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2008
THE 2008 PROHIBITED LIST WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE Valid 1 January 2008 The use of any drug should be limited to medically justified indications SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES (IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION) PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES
THE 2008 PROHIBITED LIST
WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
Valid 1 January 2008
The use of any drug should be limited to medically justified indications
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES
(IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited.
1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
1-androstendiol(5. Exogenous* AAS, including:
α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol ); 1-androstendione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione); bolandiol (19-norandrostenediol); bolasterone; boldenone; boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione); calusterone; clostebol; danazol (17α-ethynyl-17β-hydroxyandrost-4-eno[2,3-d]isoxazole); dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one); desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-17β-ol); drostanolone; ethylestrenol (19-nor-17α-pregn-4-en-17-ol); fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androstano[2,3-c]-furazan); gestrinone; 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one); mestanolone; mesterolone; metenolone; methandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one); methandriol; methasterone (2α, 17α-dimethyl-5α-androstane-3-one-17β-ol); methyldienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one); methyl-1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one); methylnortestosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one); methyltrienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one); methyltestosterone; mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione); norboletone; norclostebol; norethandrolone; oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone; prostanozol ([3,2-c]pyrazole-5α-etioallocholane-17β-tetrahydropyranol); quinbolone; stanozolol; stenbolone; 1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one); tetrahydrogestrinone (18a-homo-pregna-4,9,11-trien-17β-ol-3-one); The Prohibited List 2008 September 22, 2007
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androstenediol(androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione); dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one) ; prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone
and the following metabolites and isomers:
5(androst-4-ene-3α-androstane-3α,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol; 4-androstenediol β,17β-diol); 5-androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; 3
Where an anabolic androgenic steroid is capable of being produced endogenously, a Sample will be deemed to contain such Prohibited Substance and an Adverse Analytical Finding will be reported where the concentration of such Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers and/or any other relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete’s Sample so deviates from the range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production. A Sample shall not be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance in any such case where an Athlete proves that the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers and/or the relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete’s Sample is attributable to a physiological or pathological condition.
In all cases, and at any concentration, the Athlete’s Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance and the laboratory will report an Adverse Analytical Finding if, based on any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS), the laboratory can show that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin. In such case, no further investigation is necessary.
When a value does not so deviate from the range of values normally found in humans and any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, but if there are indications, such as a comparison to endogenous reference steroid profiles, of a possible Use of a Prohibited Substance, or when a laboratory has reported a T/E ratio greater than four (4) to one (1) and any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, further investigation shall be conducted by the relevant Anti-Doping Organization by reviewing the results of any previous test(s) or by conducting subsequent test(s).
When such further investigation is required the result shall be reported by the laboratory as atypical and not as adverse. If a laboratory reports, using anα-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 19-norandrosterone; 19-noretiocholanolone.
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additional reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS), that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin, no further investigation is necessary, and the Sample will be deemed to contain such Prohibited Substance. When an additional reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not been applied, and the minimum of three previous test results are not available, a longitudinal profile of the Athlete shall be established by performing three no-advance notice tests in a period of three months by the relevant Anti-Doping Organization. The result that triggered this longitudinal study shall be reported as atypical. If the longitudinal profile of the Athlete established by the subsequent tests is not physiologically normal, the result shall then be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding.
In extremely rare individual cases, boldenone of endogenous origin can be consistently found at very low nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) levels in urine. When such a very low concentration of boldenone is reported by a laboratory and the application of any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, further investigation may be conducted by subsequent test(s).
For 19-norandrosterone, an Adverse Analytical Finding reported by a laboratory is considered to be scientific and valid proof of exogenous origin of the Prohibited Substance. In such case, no further investigation is necessary.
Should an Athlete fail to cooperate in the investigations, the Athlete’s Sample shall be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance.
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone, zeranol, zilpaterol.
For purposes of this section:
* "exogenous" refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** "endogenous" refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the body naturally.
S2. HORMONES AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances and their releasing factors, are prohibited:
1. Erythropoietin (EPO);
2. Growth Hormone (hGH), Insulin-like Growth Factors (
3. Gonadotrophins (e.g. LH, hCG),
5. Corticotrophins.e.g. IGF-1), Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs); prohibited in males only;
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and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
Unless the Athlete can demonstrate that the concentration was due to a physiological or pathological condition, a Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance (as listed above) where the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites and/or relevant ratios or markers in the Athlete’s Sample so exceeds the range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production.
If a laboratory reports, using a reliable analytical method, that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin, the Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance and shall be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding.
S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists including their D- and L-isomers are prohibited.
As an exception, formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol and terbutaline when administered by inhalation, require an abbreviated Therapeutic Use Exemption.
Despite the granting of any form of Therapeutic Use Exemption, a concentration of salbutamol (free plus glucuronide) greater than 1000 ng/mL will be considered an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete proves that the abnormal result was the consequence of the therapeutic use of inhaled salbutamol.
S4. HORMONE ANTAGONISTS AND MODULATORS
The following classes are prohibited:
1. Aromatase inhibitorsincluding, but not limited to: anastrozole, letrozole, aminoglutethimide, exemestane, formestane, testolactone.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)including, but not limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substancesincluding, but not limited to: clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s)including but not limited to: myostatin inhibitors.
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S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include:
Diuretics*, epitestosterone, probenecid, alpha-reductase inhibitors (
Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlorthalidone, etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone, thiazides (
* A Therapeutic Use Exemption is not valid if an Athlete’s urine contains a diuretic in association with threshold or sub-threshold levels of a Prohibited Substance(s).
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M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including but not limited to perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products).
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Controls is prohibited. These include but are not limited to catheterisation, urine substitution and/or alteration.
2. Intravenous infusion is prohibited. In an acute medical situation where this method is deemed necessary, a retroactive Therapeutic Use Exemption will be required.
M3. GENE DOPING
The non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to enhance athletic performance, is prohibited.
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SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
In addition to the categories S1 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above, the following categories are prohibited in competition:
All stimulants (including both their (D- & L-) optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2008 Monitoring Program*.
Adrafinil, adrenaline**, amfepramone, amiphenazole, amphetamine, amphetaminil, benzphetamine, benzylpiperazine, bromantan, cathine***, clobenzorex, cocaine, cropropamide, crotetamide, cyclazodone, dimethylamphetamine, ephedrine
* The following substances included in the 2008 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, pseudoephedrine, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances.
** Adrenaline associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.
*** Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 micrograms per milliliter.
**** Each of ephedrine and methylephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.****, etamivan, etilamphetamine, etilefrine, famprofazone, fenbutrazate, fencamfamin, fencamine, fenetylline, fenfluramine, fenproporex, furfenorex, heptaminol, isometheptene, levmethamfetamine, meclofenoxate, mefenorex, mephentermine, mesocarb, methamphetamine (D-), methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, p-methylamphetamine, methylephedrine****, methylphenidate, modafinil, nikethamide, norfenefrine, norfenfluramine, octopamine, ortetamine, oxilofrine, parahydroxyamphetamine, pemoline, pentetrazol, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine, phenpromethamine, phentermine, 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon), prolintane, propylhexedrine, selegiline, sibutramine, strychnine, tuaminoheptane and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
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A stimulant not expressly mentioned as an example under this section should be considered as a Specified Substance only if the Athlete can establish that the substance is particularly susceptible to unintentional anti-doping rule violations because of its general availability in medicinal products or is less likely to be successfully abused as a doping agent.
The following narcotics are prohibited:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Cannabinoids (e.g. hashish, marijuana) are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered orally, rectally, intravenously or intramuscularly. Their use requires a Therapeutic Use Exemption approval.
Other routes of administration (intraarticular /periarticular/ peritendinous/ epidural/ intradermal injections and inhalation) require an Abbreviated Therapeutic Use Exemption except as noted below.
Topical preparations when used for dermatological (including iontophoresis/phonophoresis), auricular, nasal, ophthalmic, buccal, gingival and perianal disorders are not prohibited and do not require any form of Therapeutic Use Exemption.
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SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping violation threshold (haematological values) for each Federation is reported in parenthesis.
• Aeronautic (FAI) (0.20 g/L)
• Archery (FITA, IPC) (0.10 g/L)
• Automobile (FIA) (0.10 g/L)
• Boules (IPC bowls) (0.10 g/L)
• Karate (WKF) (0.10 g/L)
• Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) (0.10 g/L) for disciplines involving shooting
• Motorcycling (FIM) (0.10 g/L)
• Powerboating (UIM) (0.30 g/L)
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports.
• Aeronautic (FAI)
• Archery (FITA, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
• Automobile (FIA)
• Billiards (WCBS)
• Bobsleigh (FIBT)
• Boules (CMSB, IPC bowls)
• Bridge (FMB)
• Curling (WCF)
• Gymnastics (FIG)
• Motorcycling (FIM)
• Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) for disciplines involving shooting
• Nine-pin bowling (FIQ)
• Powerboating (UIM)
• Sailing (ISAF) for match race helms only
• Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
• Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and snowboard halfpipe/big air
• Wrestling (FILA)
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following:
Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
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"Specified Substances"* are listed below:
• All inhaled Beta-2 Agonists, except salbutamol (free plus glucuronide) greater than 1000 ng/mL and clenbuterol (listed under S1.2: Other Anabolic Agents);
• Alpha-reductase inhibitors, probenecid;
• Cathine, cropropamide, crotetamide, ephedrine, etamivan, famprofazone, heptaminol, isometheptene, levmethamfetamine, meclofenoxate,
p-methylamphetamine, methylephedrine, nikethamide, norfenefrine, octopamine, ortetamine, oxilofrine, phenpromethamine, propylhexedrine, selegiline, sibutramine, tuaminoheptane, and any other stimulant not expressly listed under section S6 for which the Athlete establishes that it fulfils the conditions described in section S6;
• All Glucocorticosteroids;
• All Beta Blockers.
*"The Prohibited List may identify specified substances which are particularly susceptible to unintentional anti-doping rule violations because of their general availability in medicinal products or which are less likely to be successfully abused as doping agents."
The Prohibited List 200811 September 22, 2007 A doping violation involving such substances may result in a reduced sanction provided that the "…Athlete can establish that the Use of such a specified substance was not intended to enhance sport performance…" . Endogenous** AAS: and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).